Mentoring: Alternatif Cegah Kekerasan Pelajar

Tawuran di kalangan pelajar dan mahasiswa adalah gambaran ironi dunia pendidikan negeri ini. sejak terjadinya tawuran antar siswa SMAN 70 dan SMAN 6 pada 24 september lalu yang menyebabkan tewasnya Alawy siswa SMAN 6[1], isu tawuran pelajar menjadi semakin hangat di masyarakat, para pendidik mulai berbenah; ratusan pemimpin perguruan tinggi seluruh Indonesia berkumpul dan membuat lima kesepakatan tentang tindak kekerasan di lingkungan kampus[2], Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Kemendikbud) berencana meminimalkan pelajaran IPA dan IPS di tingkat sekolah dasar dan menggantinya dengan pelajaran sikap[3] dengan harapan tawuran dan bentuk-bentuk pekerti buruk lainnya dapat dihindari sejak usia dini. 

Tentunya kita akan menyambut baik setiap usaha dari pemerintah maupun kaum akademisi dalam menanggulangi bahaya moral  negeri ini. namun izinkan saya untuk memberikan alternatif solusi yang mungkin dapat dipilih.

sebelumnya, saya mengapresiasi ide dari bapak Rochmat Wahab selaku Rektor Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta (UNY); menurutnya, kunci penyelesaian problem kekerasan adalah dengan menciptakan kekompakan di lingkungan kampus. jika pimpinan kampus  berinisiatif membangun suasana kepemimpinan yang kompak dan cair, langkah tersebut bisa ditiru oleh pimpinan di unit-unit di bawah mereka, dan menjadi contoh positif bagi mahasiswa. Selanjutnya beliau juga menyarankan adanya penempatan pembina pada tiap organisasi atau unit kegiatan mahasiswa (UKM) di kampus, para pembina tersebut nantinya tidak hanya bertindak sebagai simbol, tetapi benar-benar mendampingi mahasiswa dalam setiap kegiatan kelompoknya[4].

Terkait pernyataan beliau yang terakhir, saya jadi teringat pada satu bentuk pendampingan bagi pemuda. Lazim kita mendengarnya sebagai mentoring. Mentoring adalah sebuah hubungan di mana individu yang lebih tua menyediakan bimbingan, instruksi, dan dorongan secara terus menerus kepada individu lain – dalam hal ini adalah anak yang lebih muda (biasanya pelajar atau mahasiswa) dengan tujuan mengembangkan kompetensi dan karakter pemuda tersebut di kemudian hari[5]. Mentor yang dipandang sebagai sosok yang lebih tua dan bijaksana mengembangkan hubungan yang supporif kepada individu yang usianya lebih muda, yang disebut sebagai mentee[6].

Pada umumnya, mentoring yag kita kenal adalah kegiatan pembinaan keislaman kepada pelajar di SMP atau SMA melalui Guru Pelajaran Agama atau aktivitas ekstrakurikuler semisal Rohis. Pada perguruan tinggi, mentoring acapkali juga menjadi kegiatan yang wajib diikuti oleh para mahasiswa baru dalam kurun waktu tertentu.

Konsep ini sesungguhnya sangat bagus, namun sayangnya hanya sedikit lembaga pendidikan yang menerapkannya. Padahal, istilah mentoring tidak saja bersinggungan dengan pelajaran keislaman. Sejatinya mentoring adalah milik dunia pendidikan karena manfaatnya yang positif pada perkebangan peserta didik. studi yang telah ada di Amerika membuktikan bahwa mentoring dapat mengurangi absensi di sekolah, meningkatkan prestasi dan memperbaiki relasi dengan orang tua[7].

Mengapa hal tersebut dapat terjadi?
Jika kita menengok pada teori tugas perkembangan remaja menurut William Kay[8], salah satu tugas perkembangan yang harus mereka tuntaskan adalah menemukan manusia model untuk dijadikan identitas. Bayangkan jika model yang mereka ikuti adalah orang-orang yang senang melakukan kekerasan. para pelajar yang sering tawuran itu, saya yakin me-modeling perbuatan kakak tingkatnya yang kerap melestarikan perilaku kekerasan, bullying, dan perpeloncoan di sekolah mereka. Karena kekhawatiran itu, mentor hadir dan menjadi significant others bagi pemuda bermasalah maupun pemuda beresiko. significant others memiliki aperan penting dalam mengembangkan konsep diri positif remaja. Significant Others atau orang-orang terdekat (seperti orang tua dan teman sebaya) adalah cermin sosial yang menentukan pandangan seseorang tentang dirinya. Demikianlah saat menilai diri, seseorang akan mengadopsi apa yang ia rasakan dari penilaian orang lain yang dianggapnya penting. Maka, penerimaan, dukungan, dan penghargaan positif dari Significant Others menjadi sebuah sumber penting dari perasaan bernilai sebagai pribadi[9].

Selanjutnya, dengan bimbingan dan hubungan yang lekat dari mentor tersebut, pemuda mulai mengembangkan identitas dan perlahan-lahan menerapkan nilai positif pada diri dan perilakunya. Kembali lagi pada tugas perkembangan William Kay di atas, salah satu poin menyebutkan bahwa indikator tercapainya perkembangan masa remaja yang sehat adalah ketika  individu memperkuat self control (kemampuan mengendalikan diri) atas dasar skala nilai, prinsip-prinsip atau falsafah hidup. Inilah yang menjadi harapan kita semua; remaja yang memiliki kontrol diri yang kuat tentu akan semakin kecil potensinya untuk terlibat pada aktivitas delinquen. mencegah tentu lebih baik dari mengobati, bukan?

 ------------------------------------
[1] Atmi Pertiwi , Begini Kronologi Tawuran Siswa SMA 6 Versus SMA 70 (online), http://id.berita.yahoo.com/begini-kronologi-tawuran-siswa-sma-6-versus-sma-130112636.html 
[2] Rifa Nadia Nurfuadah, Lima Kesepakatan Rektor Se-Indonesia tentang Tawuran (online), http://kampus.okezone.com/read/2012/10/15/373/704393/lima kesepakatan-rektor-se-indonesia-tentang-tawuran 
[3] Margaret Puspitarini , Pelajaran IPA & IPS Tak Dihapus, Hanya Ganti Nama (online), http://kampus.okezone.com/read/2012/09/28/373/696342/pelajaran-ipa-ips-tak-dihapus-hanya-ganti-nama 
[4] Rifa Nadia Nurfuadah , Rektor UNY: Konflik Antar-UKM Pencetus Tawuran di Kampus (online),http://kampus.okezone.com/read/2012/10/15/373/704184/rektor-uny-konflik-antar-ukm-pencetus-tawuran-di-kampus
[5] Michael J. Karcher , Laura Roy-Carlson , Chiharu Allen and Debby Gil-Hernandez “Mentoring“, dalam Steven W. Lee,  Encyclopedia of School Psychology(London : SAGE Publications, Inc,  2005h.323. 
[6] ibid h.323.
[7] John W Santrock, Perkembangan Remaja, (Jakarta: Erlangga, 2007) h. 157
[8] Syamsu Yusuf LN, Psikologi Perkembangan Anak & Remaja, (Bandung: Rosda, 2001) h.72-73.
[9] Celia B. Fisher & Richard M. Lerner, Self-Concepts and Self-Esteem, Children and Adolescentsdalam Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science,(London : SAGE Publications, Inc,  2007) h. 11.

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